rare earth magnets are composed of rare earth magnetic material and rare earth metals. how rare earth metals works on strong magnets
In 1901, DE ma kai (Eugene - Antole Demarcay) from the "samarium" discovered the new element, called Europium (Europium). This is probably the word according to the European (Europe). Most of europium oxide phosphor. Eu3 + activator for red phosphors, Eu2 + phosphors for blue. Now Y2O2S: Eu3 + is luminous efficiency, coating stability, recovery cost as the best phosphor. And to improve the luminous efficiency and contrast and other technical improvements, it is being widely used. In recent years, europium oxide is also used to the new phosphor powder X-ray medical diagnosis system of stimulated emission of radiation. Europium oxide can also be used in the manufacture of colored lenses and optical filter, used in magnetic storage device, the control of the atomic reactor materials, shielding materials and structural materials can also be a shot.
In 1880, Swiss Mali Wagner g \"samarium\" separation into two elements, one of them by cable was confirmed by samarium element, another element to get wave according to the research of BaoDe lai confirmed that in 1886, Mali Wagner g to commemorate the discoverer of the element yttrium research pioneer of rare earths added Dutch chemist Lin (Gado Linium), named this new element gadolinium.
Gadolinium will play an important role in modern technology innovation. Its main purposes are: (1) the water-soluble paramagnetic complex can improve human body in medical nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging signal. (2) the sulphur oxide can be used as a special brightness of oscilloscope tube substrate reseau and X-ray fluorescent screen. (3) in the gadolinium gallium garnet gadolinium is ideal for a magnetic bubble memory storage single substrate. (4) in the absence of Camot cycle limit, can be used as a solid state magnetic refrigeration medium. (5) used to control the nuclear chain reaction level of inhibitor, to ensure the safety of the nuclear reaction. (6) is used as the additives of samarium cobalt magnet, to ensure that the performance does not change with temperature. In addition, gadolinium oxide used with lanthanum, contribute to the change of the glass transition region and improve the thermal stability of the glass. Gadolinium oxide can also be used in the manufacture of capacitors, X-ray intensifying screen.
In the world are currently working to develop gadolinium alloys in magnetic refrigeration applications, has been a breakthrough, at room temperature using superconducting magnets, metal gadolinium, or its alloys for refrigerating medium magnetic refrigerator has been available.
In 1843 Sweden mo sander (Karl g. osander) based on the research of the yttrium soil, found that Terbium elements (Terbium). Terbium applications mostly involves high technology, is the tip of the technology-intensive and knowledge-intensive projects, and has significant economic benefit of project, with attractive prospect of development. Main application areas are: (1) the phosphors used in the activation of the green tricolor phosphors powder agent, such as terbium activated phosphate matrix, terbium cerium activate a silicate substrate, terbium magnesium aluminate matrix, all the green light under the excited state. (2) the magnetic optical storage materials, in recent years the department of terbium magneto-optic material has reached the scale of mass production, developed with Tb - Fe amorphous thin film magnetic optical discs, computer storage devices, storage capacity 10 ~ 15 times. (3) magneto-optic glass, Faraday rotation containing terbium glass is widely used in manufacturing in laser technology, isolator, and the ring of the rotating key materials. Especially terbium, dysprosium ferromagnetic striction alloy (TerFenol) is developed, but also opened up a new use of terbium, TerFenol is a new kind of material, in the 70 s found that half of the alloy composition of terbium and dysprosium, sometimes join holmium, the rest of the iron, the alloy by the Iowa Ames laboratory developed first, when TerFenol placed in a magnetic field, its size changes than the average change of magnetic materials, and this change can make some precision mechanical movement. Start is mainly used in sonar, terbium, dysprosium iron currently has been widely used in various fields, from the fuel injection system, fluid control valve, micro mechanical actuator, a space telescope to locate the regulator and the regulator in the fields of airplane wings.
In 1886, the French wave iskandar BaoDe took holmium successfully separated into two elements, one is called holmium, while another according to the meaning of \"hard to get\" from the holmium named dysprosium (dysprosium). Dysprosium currently in many high technology plays a more and more important role, is the primary purpose of dysprosium (1) used as additive of ndfeb is a permanent magnet, in this kind of magnets to add 2 ~ 3% of dysprosium, the coercive force can be improved, the demand for dysprosium is not big, but with the increase of demand ndfeb magnet, it becomes necessary to add elements, grade must be about 95 ~ 99.9%, the demand is increasing rapidly. Dysprosium (2) as an activator phosphors, trivalent dysprosium is a kind of promising single active ion luminescence center tricolor luminous material, it is mainly composed of two emission band, a yellow light emission, another is blue light emission, mixed dysprosium luminescent material can be used as tricolor phosphors. Dysprosium (3) is the preparation of large magnetostrictive dysprosium metal terbium (Terfenol) alloy iron necessary metal raw material, can make some precision mechanical movement activities. (4) the dysprosium metal can be used as magneto optical storage materials, with high sensitivity and record speed of reading. (5) is used for the preparation of dysprosium lamp, used in dysprosium lamp working substance is dysprosium iodide, this kind of lamps and lanterns has brightness, good color, high color temperature, small size, stable arc, etc, have been used for film, printing and other lighting light source. (6) with dysprosium has characteristic of large neutron capture cross-section, in the atomic energy industry to measure the neutron energy spectrum or do neutron absorber. (7) Dy3Al5O12 also can be used as a magnetic refrigeration work with magnetic material. With the development of science and technology, the application field of dysprosium will continuously expand and extend.
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