rare earth magnets are composed of rare earth magnetic material and rare earth metals. how rare earth metals works on strong magnets
In the 19th century, because of the discovery of spectrum analysis and published the periodic table, plus the progress of electrochemical separation process of rare earth elements, more promote the discovery of new rare earth elements. Found in 1879, the Swedish Cleveland holmium element and in the Swedish capital Stockholm places named holmium (holmium).
Holmium applications at present has yet to be further development, the dosage is not very big, recently, baotou rare earth research institute USES high temperature and high vacuum distillation purification technology, developed the high purity of rare earth impurity content is very low metal holmium Ho / ∑ RE > 99.9%. At present the main use of holmium: used as metal halogen lamp additives, metal halide lamp is a gas discharge lamp, it is developed on the basis of high pressure mercury lamp, its characteristic is in the light bulb filled with a variety of different rare earth halide. At present the main use is rare earths iodide in different spectral line during a gas discharge light color. The holmium lamps and work material is adopted in the iodide holmium, in arc zone can obtain higher concentrations of metal atoms, thus greatly improve the radiation efficiency. (2) can be used as yttrium holmium or yttrium aluminum garnet additive; (3) doped YAG yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho: YAG) can launch 2 microns laser, the body's tissues to 2 microns laser absorption rate is high, almost than Hd: YAG high 3 orders of magnitude. So with Ho: YAG laser medical surgery, can not only improve the operation efficiency and accuracy, and can make the thermal damage area to smaller. Holmium crystals produce free beam can eliminate fat, won't produce too much heat, thus reduce the thermal damage to healthy tissue, reported to the United States with holmium laser treatment of glaucoma, can reduce the pain of the patients. 2 microns in our country the level of the laser crystal has reached the international level, should vigorously develop and produce this kind of laser crystal. (4) in the magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol - D, can also add a small amount of holmium, thereby reducing alloy saturation magnetization field as needed. (5) with other doped yag optical fiber can be made of fiber laser, fiber amplifier, optical fiber sensor and so on optical components in optical fiber communication rapidly will play a more important role today.
In 1843, Sweden's Thornton found Erbium elements (Erbium). Erbium optical properties is very outstanding, has always been a matter of concern: (1) the Er3 + light emission at 1550 nm with special significance, because the wavelength is just the minimum loss in optical fiber communication optical fiber, erbium ions (Er3 +) by the wavelength of 980 nm, 1480 nm light excitation, 4 i15/2 from the ground state transition to upper state 4 i13/2, when in the upper state Er3 + to transition back to the ground state when emit 1550 nm wavelength of light, quartz optical fiber can transmit different wavelengths of light, but different light failure rate is different, in the light of 1550 nm band quartz optical fiber transmission attenuation time minimum (0.15 db/km), almost to the lower limit of attenuation rate. Therefore, optical fiber communication at 1550 nm as a signal light, the light loss is minimal. So, if the appropriate concentration of erbium doped suitable matrix, can according to the principle of laser effect, loss in the amplifier can compensate the communication system, so the need to enlarge the wavelength of 1550 nm light signals in the telecommunications network, erbium-doped fiber amplifier is indispensable optical device, the erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier has been commercialized. According to the report, to avoid useless absorption, optical fiber in the amount of erbium doped dozens to hundreds of PPM. The rapid development of optical fiber communication, will set up the application of erbium new areas. (2) the other erbium laser crystal and its output of 1730 nm and 1550 nm laser is safe for people eyes, atmospheric transmission performance is good, the smoke of the battlefield penetration ability is stronger, the secrecy good, not easy detection by enemy, illuminate large quantities of military targets, has made it safe for military use portable laser range finder. (3) the Er3 + join the glass can be made into rare earth glass laser materials, the output pulse energy is the largest, the highest output power solid state laser materials. (4) Er3 + can do active ion of rare earth conversion on laser materials. (5) other erbium can also be applied to the lens glass, crystal glass decolorizing and shading, etc.
Thulium element is found in 1879 Sweden Cleveland, and with the same di Scandinavia (Scandinavia) the old name of both named Thulium (Thulium).
Thulium has the following several aspects: (1) the main purpose of thulium ray source used as medical portable X-ray machine, thulium can after irradiation in the nuclear reactor to produce a X-ray of isotope that can be used to manufacture portable blood irradiation on the instrument, the radiometer can make thulium - 169 is the role of high neutron beam into thulium - 170, emit X-ray irradiation blood and decreased white blood cells, and it is these white blood cells cause of organ transplant rejection, thereby reducing the early rejection of organ. (2) thulium element can also be applied to clinical diagnosis and treatment of tumor, because it to tumor tissues with high affinity, heavy rare earth greater than light rare earth affinity, especially with the affinity of the thulium element is the largest. (3) thulium in X-ray intensifying screen do activator in the fluorescent powder LaOBr: Br (blue), to enhance the optical sensitivity, and thus reduce the X-ray radiation and harm of people, compared with calcium tungstate intensifying screen before can reduce X ray dose by 50%, in the medical application has the important practical significance. (4) thulium can do additives in new lighting source metal halogen lamp. (5) Tm3 + join the glass can be made into rare earth glass laser material, the quantity of output pulse is the largest, the highest output power solid state laser materials. Tm3 + also can do active ion of rare earth conversion on laser materials.
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