rare earth magnets are composed of rare earth magnetic material and rare earth metals. how rare earth metals works on strong magnets
In 1878, Charles (Jean Charles) and Ma Lige (found in the \"erbium\" new rare earth element, the element by kuyt will (Ytterby) named Ytterbium (Ytterbium).
There are (1) as the main purpose of ytterbium heat shielding coating material. Ytterbium can significantly improve the corrosion resistance of zinc electroplating layer, and contain the ytterbium coating than excluding ytterbium coating grain fine, homogeneous density. (2) as a magnetostrictive material. This kind of material has super magnetic scale expansion in the magnetic field characteristics. This alloy is mainly composed of yb/ferrite alloy and dysprosium ferrite alloy composition, and add a certain proportion of manganese, in order to produce super magnetic scalability. Ytterbium element (3) is used to measure pressure, the experiment proved that ytterbium components within the scope of the calibration of pressure sensitivity is high, at the same time as the ytterbium in pressure measurement applications has opened up a new way. (4) molar empty resin base filler, to replace the commonly used silver amalgam. (5) the Japanese scholars have successfully completed the ytterbium doped gadolinium gallium garnet embedment line waveguide laser preparation work, the completion of the work is very meaningful for the further development of laser technology. In addition, ytterbium activator phosphor, radio ceramics, electronic computer memory element (bubble) additive, fluxing agent and additive in optical glass and glass fiber, etc.
In 1907 Wells Bach and especially bain (G.U rbain) respectively, with different separation methods from the ytterbium, and discovered a new element in the Wells Bach named the elements of the Cp (Cassiopeium), especially according to the old name of Paris bain lutece named Lu (Lutetium). Cp and Lu later found to be the same element, called lutetium unity.
There are (1) the main purpose of lutetium make some special alloys. For example, lutetium aluminum alloy can be used for neutron activation analysis. (2) the stability of lutetium nuclide in petroleum cracking, alkylation, hydrogenation and polymerization plays a catalytic role. (3) the yttrium iron or add elements yttrium aluminum garnet, improve some properties. (4) the bubble reservoir of raw material. (5) a compound function four aluminium borate crystals lutetium doped yttrium neodymium, belongs to the salt solution cooling technology of crystal growth, the experiment proved that the mixed lutetium NYAB crystals in the optical homogeneity and laser performance is better than that of NYAB crystal. (6) the study found that by the relevant departments of the foreign lutetium in electrochromics and low molecule have potential application in the semiconductor. In addition, lutetium phosphors are also used in energy battery technology and activator, etc.
In 1788, a to study chemistry, and mineralogy, collect ore amateur Sweden officer Carl areni uz (Karl Arrhenius) in Stockholm kuyt will village outside the bay (Ytterby), found the appearance as black as coal tar and minerals, according to the local place name named kuyt will mine (Ytterbite). 1794 Finnish chemist John Lin analyzed that kuyt will ore samples. Found in addition to the beryllium, silicon, iron oxide, contains about 38% of the unknown elements of oxide jujube \"new earth\". In 1797, the Swedish chemist ek berg (Anders Gustaf Ekeberg) confirmed that this kind of \"new earth\", named yttrium soil (Yttria, yttrium oxide).
Yttrium metal, is a kind of widely used main purposes are: (1) the steel and non-ferrous alloy additives. FeCr alloy usually contains 0.5 4% yttrium, yttrium could enhance the oxidation resistance and ductility of the stainless steel; MB26 alloy after adding the right amount of yttrium mixed rare earth rich, to improve the comprehensive performance of alloy obviously, can replace part of the stress of the strong aluminum alloy for aircraft component; Add a small amount of yttrium rich in Al - Zr alloy rare earths, alloy can be improved conductivity; The alloy have been used for most domestic wire factory. Add yttrium in copper alloy and improve the conductivity and mechanical strength. (2) the yttrium contained 6% and aluminium 2% of silicon nitride ceramic materials, can be used to develop engine parts. (3) with 400 watts of neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet laser beam to drilling, cutting and welding of large components and other mechanical processing. (4) composed of Y - Al garnet single chip screen electronic microscope, fluorescence intensity is high, low absorption of scattered light, high temperature resistance and abrasion resistance is good. (5) high yttrium contained 90% of yttrium alloy structure, can be applied to aviation and other requiring low density and high melting point. (6) the current concern of yttrium doped SrZrO3 high-temperature proton conducting materials, requirements for fuel cell and electrolytic cell and high hydrogen solubility of gas sensor production has the vital significance. In addition, yttrium used for high temperature resistant coating materials, nuclear reactor fuel diluent, permanent magnetic material additives and getter in the electronic industry.
In 1879, Sweden's chemistry professor nelson (L.F.N ilson, 1840 ~ 1899) and Clive (P.T.C leve, 1840 ~ 1905) is almost at the same time in the rare mineral silicon beryllium ore yttrium and black dilute found a new element in the gold mine. They give the element named \"Scandium\" (Scandium), Scandium is mendeleev had foretold \"class b\" elements. Their findings again proved the correctness of the periodic trends and mendeleev's vision.
Scandium compared with yttrium and lanthanide, due to the ionic radius small, hydroxide alkaline is particularly weak, therefore, scandium and rare earth elements together, with ammonia (or extremely dilute alkali treatment, scandium will be the first to precipitate, so the application of the fractional precipitation technique can be more easily to separate it from the rare earth elements. Another way is to use nitrate points to separate polar decomposition, due to nitric acid scandium is the most easy to decompose, thus achieve the purpose of separation.
Can be obtained using the method of electrolytic metal scandium, while refined scandium ScCl3, KCl and LiCl eutectic, molten zinc as the cathode electrolytic, scandium in zinc precipitation on pole, and then will go to the available scandium metal zinc steam. In addition, in mineral processing production of uranium, thorium and easy recovery scandium lanthanides. Tungsten, tin, is part of the comprehensive recovery of scandium is also one of the important sources of scandium.
Scandium in compounds mainly shows three valence, easily oxidized in the air into Sc2O3 lost into dark grey metallic luster.
Scandium can release hydrogen to the hot water, soluble in acid, also is a kind of strong reducing agent.
Scandium oxide and hydroxide alkaline, only the salt hydrolysis ash can hardly. Scandium chloride is white crystal, soluble in water and can deliquesce in the air.
In the metallurgical industry, scandium is often used in the manufacture of alloy additive (alloy), to improve the strength of the alloy, hardness and heat resistance, and performance. Such as, add a small amount of scandium in molten iron, can significantly improve the performance of the cast iron, a small amount of scandium in aluminium, can improve its strength and heat resistance.
In the electronic industry, scandium can be used for a variety of semiconductor devices, such as scandium sulfite in the semiconductor has attracted the attention of both at home and abroad, the application of scandium ferrite in computer magnetic core is promising.
In the chemical industry, using scandium compounds as alcohol dehydrogenation and dehydrating agent, production of ethylene and chlorine produced by waste hydrochloric acid and efficient catalyst.
In the glass industry, can make special glass containing scandium.
In the lighting industry, including scandium sodium lamp made of scandium and sodium, possesses the advantages of high efficiency and light color is.
Scandium in nature are exist in the form of 45 sc, in addition, scandium and 9 kinds of radioactive isotopes, namely 40 ~ 44 sc and 46 ~ 49 sc. Among them, 46 sc as a tracer, has been used in chemical, metallurgical and oceanography, etc. In medicine, and study abroad with 46 sc to treat cancer. The properties and usage of scandium.
Rare earth resources are scarce, America and Japan have not their own domestic rare earth resources, only from import in our country, the rare earth export in our country can be said to sell the gold into the cabbage price, countries will grow much in recent years, control of the exports of rare earths.
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