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rare earth magnets are composed of rare earth magnetic material and rare earth metals. how rare earth metals works on strong magnets

Rare earth metals family introduction, rare earth metal magnetic material, rare earth metal lists, rare earth metals function and application

Rare earth metals family introduction

Rare earth family include 15 of lanthanide elements, and scandium and yttrium which is close to the lanthanide, totally 17 elements. They are: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium, scandium, yttrium. The biggest users of metal is neodymium in ndfeb permanent magnet materials. The coming of ndfeb permanent magnets for rare earth high-tech areas has brought new vigor and vitality. Ndfeb magnets, with high magnetic energy known as "the king of the permanent magnet, with its superior performance is widely used in electronics, machinery and other industries.

Rare earth metal elements application

Due to the atomic structure of the special, rare earth family members is very lively, and are a good and boundless magic. They combine with other elements, can be a kaleidoscope of category is various, function, application of new materials, different and double improve performance, is called the "industrial monosodium glutamate" of contemporary. Such as: the application of rare earth in supersonic aircraft А Ц Р 1 and Ж П 207 alloy, can work under 400 ℃ for a long time, it is nowadays one of the best alloy high temperature performance, its lasting strength aluminum alloy can be improved 1 ~ 2 times than normal; Steel after adding rare earth, made of thin transverse impact toughness of the compound increased by more than 50%, corrosion resistance increased by 60%, and as long as each tonne of steel re (about 300 grams, play a prominent part, has four two dial one thousand kg; Of rare earths added in acidic textile dyes, can improve the dyeing rate, adjusting the affinity of dyes and fibers, improve the color fastness, the improvement of fiber color, appearance quality and the degree of soft, and can save dyes and reduce environmental pollution and reduce labor intensity, etc.; Rare earth elements can improve the chlorophyll content, enhance photosynthesis of plants, promote root growth and absorption of nutrients.

Also can promote seed germination, and promote the growth of seedlings, and also has the crops to enhance the ability of disease resistance, cold resistance, drought resistance; Using rare earth promethium as heat source, can provide auxiliary energy for vacuum detection and satellites. Promethium batteries can be used as a missile guidance apparatus and the power of the clock, this kind of battery is small in size, can be used for several years in a row. In today's world, whether in high-tech fields such as aerospace, aviation, military, or the People's Daily life supplies, regardless of industry, agriculture, or chemistry, biology, medicine, the application of rare earth and its role is almost ubiquitous, omnipotent.

Rare earth metal elements  lists and introduction

--Lanthanum (La)

This element lanthanum is named in 1839, when there is a call "mo sander" swedes ceria was found to contain other elements, he borrowed from Greek the word "hide" the element named "lanthanum". Since then, lanthanum then boarded the stage of history. Lanthanum has a very wide range of applications, such as applied to piezoelectric materials, electric materials, thermoelectric materials, magnetic resistance materials, luminescence materials (powder), hydrogen storage materials, optical glass, laser materials, all kinds of alloy materials, etc. She also applied to the preparation of many organic catalysts of chemical products, light conversion agricultural film also used lanthanum, in foreign countries, the scientists lanthanum on crop role assignment and calcium "super" laudatory name.

--Cerium (Ce)

"Ce" this element is a German at the crow of prose, the Swede uz ", and gave birth to the chests, discovered in 1803 and named after, to the memory of the asteroid was discovered in 1801, Ceres. ?? Cerium additive in cerium are widely used in (1) as a glass, can absorb ultraviolet and infrared ray, has been applied in the automobile glass. Not only can prevent ultraviolet ray, also it can decrease the temperature of the car, saving air conditioning. Since 1997, the Japanese auto glass all join cerium oxide, used in automobile glass cerium oxide at least 1996, 2000 tons, the United States is about one thousand tons. (2) are the applications of cerium to automobile exhaust purification catalysts, which can effectively prevent a large number of automobile exhaust gas into the air. The United States in this consumption accounts for a third of the total consumption of rare earth is strong. (3) sulfide cerium can take the place of lead, cadmium and other harmful to the environment and human's metal used to paint, to plastic coloring, can also be used for coating, ink and paper industries. The leading French rhone Planck's company. (4) Ce: LiSAF laser system is developed in the solid state laser in the United States, by monitoring the tryptophan concentration can be used to detect biological weapons, can also be used for medicine. Cerium application field is very broad, almost all in the field of application of rare earth containing cerium. Such as polishing powder, hydrogen storage material, thermoelectric materials, cerium tungsten electrode, ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric ceramic, cerium silicon carbide abrasive, fuel cell materials, gasoline catalyst, some permanent magnetic material, all kinds of alloy steel and non-ferrous metals, etc.

--Praseodymium (Pr)

About 160 years ago, the swedes mo sander from lanthanum discovered a new element, but it is not a single element, mo Thornton found the nature of this element is very similar with lanthanum, will its entitled "praseodymium neodymium". "Praseodymium neodymium" Greek word for "twin" meaning. Around for more than 40 years, is the invention gaideng veil in 1885, Austrian Wells Bach successfully isolated from "neodymium praseodymium" out of the two elements, one named "nd", the other is named "pr". The "twin" are separated, praseodymium elements also have their own talent vast heaven and earth.

Praseodymium is larger dosage of rare earth elements, which is mainly used in glass, ceramics and magnetic materials. Praseodymium (1) is widely used in building ceramics and ceramics for daily use, its mixed with ceramic glaze glaze, also can make the glaze alone paint, paint made of pale yellow, tonal and pure and elegant. (2) used in the manufacture of permanent magnets. Choose cheap praseodymium neodymium metal instead of pure metal manufacturing neodymium permanent magnet materials, the antioxidant properties and mechanical properties, can be processed into various shapes of magnets. Widely used in all kinds of electronic devices and motors. (3) used in oil catalytic cracking. In the form of richment neodymium praseodymium in Y type zeolite molecular sieve preparation of oil cracking catalyst, catalyst activity, selectivity and stability can be improved. China began in the 70 s into commercial use, dosage increased. (4) praseodymium can also be used for abrasive polishing. In addition, praseodymium purposes is becoming more and more widely in the field of optical fiber.

--Neodymium (Nd)

Along with the birth of the elements of praseodymium, neodymium also arises at the historic moment, the arrival of neodymium active rare earth field, plays an important role in the field of rare earth, and around the rare earth market.

Elements with its unique position in the field of rare earth neodymium, become the hot spot in the market for many years. Success of the alpha magnetic spectrometer, marks the magnetic of ndfeb magnets in China has entered the world first-class level. Nd also applies to non-ferrous metal materials. 1.5 ~ 2.5% neodymium is added in the magnesium or aluminum alloy, high temperature properties of the alloy can be improved, air tightness and corrosion resistance, widely used in aerospace materials. In addition, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet produce shortwave laser beam, under 10 mm in industry are widely used in thickness of welding and cutting thin materials. On health care, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser instead of a scalpel to remove surgery or disinfect the wound. Also used in glass and ceramic materials coloring and neodymium rubber additives. With the development of science and technology, rare earth science and technology development and extension, neodymium will have a broader use of space.

--Promethium (Pm)

In 1947, the mariinsky (J.A.M arinsky), glen tannin (L.E.G lendenin) and collier (C.E.C oryell) from the atomic reactor used successfully isolated in the uranium fuel element 61, with the name of god in Greek mythology (Prometheus) named Prometheus Promethium (Promethium).

Promethium as nuclear reactors to produce artificial radioactive elements. There are (1) the main purpose of promethium heat source. For the vacuum detection and satellites provide auxiliary energy. (2) Pm147 low beta release energy, used in the manufacture of promethium battery. As missile guidance instrument and the power of the clock. This battery is small in size, can be used for several years in a row. In addition, promethium is also used in portable X-ray apparatus, the preparation of phosphors, measure thickness as well as the beacon light.

--Samarium (Sm)

In 1879, a wave in BaoDe lai from niobium yttrium ore "praseodymium neodymium" discovered a new rare earth elements, and according to the title of this ore named samarium.

Samarium is light yellow, do samarium cobalt permanent magnet materials, samarium cobalt magnet was among the first to get the industrial application of rare earth magnets. This kind of permanent magnets have SmCo5 and Sm2Co17 two kinds. In the early 70 s invented SmCo5 department, invented the Sm2Co17 is late. Now is the latter needs to give priority to. The purity of samarium oxide used samarium cobalt magnet does not need too much, from the cost into consideration, the main use about 95% of the products. In addition, samarium oxide are also used in ceramic capacitor and catalyst. In addition, samarium have nuclear properties, can be used as structure material of nuclear reactor, shielding materials and materials control, make the nuclear fission produces the enormous energy to be able to use security.

--Europium (Eu)

In 1901, DE ma kai (Eugene - Antole Demarcay) from the "samarium" discovered the new element, called Europium (Europium). This is probably the word according to the European (Europe). Most of europium oxide phosphor. Eu3 + activator for red phosphors, Eu2 + phosphors for blue. Now Y2O2S: Eu3 + is luminous efficiency, coating stability, recovery cost as the best phosphor. And to improve the luminous efficiency and contrast and other technical improvements, it is being widely used. In recent years, europium oxide is also used to the new phosphor powder X-ray medical diagnosis system of stimulated emission of radiation. Europium oxide can also be used in the manufacture of colored lenses and optical filter, used in magnetic storage device, the control of the atomic reactor materials, shielding materials and structural materials can also be a shot.

--Gadolinium (Gd)

In 1880, Swiss Mali Wagner g \"samarium\" separation into two elements, one of them by cable was confirmed by samarium element, another element to get wave according to the research of BaoDe lai confirmed that in 1886, Mali Wagner g to commemorate the discoverer of the element yttrium research pioneer of rare earths added Dutch chemist Lin (Gado Linium), named this new element gadolinium.

Gadolinium will play an important role in modern technology innovation. Its main purposes are: (1) the water-soluble paramagnetic complex can improve human body in medical nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging signal. (2) the sulphur oxide can be used as a special brightness of oscilloscope tube substrate reseau and X-ray fluorescent screen. (3) in the gadolinium gallium garnet gadolinium is ideal for a magnetic bubble memory storage single substrate. (4) in the absence of Camot cycle limit, can be used as a solid state magnetic refrigeration medium. (5) used to control the nuclear chain reaction level of inhibitor, to ensure the safety of the nuclear reaction. (6) is used as the additives of samarium cobalt magnet, to ensure that the performance does not change with temperature. In addition, gadolinium oxide used with lanthanum, contribute to the change of the glass transition region and improve the thermal stability of the glass. Gadolinium oxide can also be used in the manufacture of capacitors, X-ray intensifying screen.

In the world are currently working to develop gadolinium alloys in magnetic refrigeration applications, has been a breakthrough, at room temperature using superconducting magnets, metal gadolinium, or its alloys for refrigerating medium magnetic refrigerator has been available.

--Terbium (Tb)

In 1843 Sweden mo sander (Karl g. osander) based on the research of the yttrium soil, found that Terbium elements (Terbium). Terbium applications mostly involves high technology, is the tip of the technology-intensive and knowledge-intensive projects, and has significant economic benefit of project, with attractive prospect of development. Main application areas are: (1) the phosphors used in the activation of the green tricolor phosphors powder agent, such as terbium activated phosphate matrix, terbium cerium activate a silicate substrate, terbium magnesium aluminate matrix, all the green light under the excited state. (2) the magnetic optical storage materials, in recent years the department of terbium magneto-optic material has reached the scale of mass production, developed with Tb - Fe amorphous thin film magnetic optical discs, computer storage devices, storage capacity 10 ~ 15 times. (3) magneto-optic glass, Faraday rotation containing terbium glass is widely used in manufacturing in laser technology, isolator, and the ring of the rotating key materials. Especially terbium, dysprosium ferromagnetic striction alloy (TerFenol) is developed, but also opened up a new use of terbium, TerFenol is a new kind of material, in the 70 s found that half of the alloy composition of terbium and dysprosium, sometimes join holmium, the rest of the iron, the alloy by the Iowa Ames laboratory developed first, when TerFenol placed in a magnetic field, its size changes than the average change of magnetic materials, and this change can make some precision mechanical movement. Start is mainly used in sonar, terbium, dysprosium iron currently has been widely used in various fields, from the fuel injection system, fluid control valve, micro mechanical actuator, a space telescope to locate the regulator and the regulator in the fields of airplane wings.

--Dysprosium (Dy)

In 1886, the French wave iskandar BaoDe took holmium successfully separated into two elements, one is called holmium, while another according to the meaning of \"hard to get\" from the holmium named dysprosium (dysprosium). Dysprosium currently in many high technology plays a more and more important role, is the primary purpose of dysprosium (1) used as additive of ndfeb is a permanent magnet, in this kind of magnets to add 2 ~ 3% of dysprosium, the coercive force can be improved, the demand for dysprosium is not big, but with the increase of demand ndfeb magnet, it becomes necessary to add elements, grade must be about 95 ~ 99.9%, the demand is increasing rapidly. Dysprosium (2) as an activator phosphors, trivalent dysprosium is a kind of promising single active ion luminescence center tricolor luminous material, it is mainly composed of two emission band, a yellow light emission, another is blue light emission, mixed dysprosium luminescent material can be used as tricolor phosphors. Dysprosium (3) is the preparation of large magnetostrictive dysprosium metal terbium (Terfenol) alloy iron necessary metal raw material, can make some precision mechanical movement activities. (4) the dysprosium metal can be used as magneto optical storage materials, with high sensitivity and record speed of reading. (5) is used for the preparation of dysprosium lamp, used in dysprosium lamp working substance is dysprosium iodide, this kind of lamps and lanterns has brightness, good color, high color temperature, small size, stable arc, etc, have been used for film, printing and other lighting light source. (6) with dysprosium has characteristic of large neutron capture cross-section, in the atomic energy industry to measure the neutron energy spectrum or do neutron absorber. (7) Dy3Al5O12 also can be used as a magnetic refrigeration work with magnetic material. With the development of science and technology, the application field of dysprosium will continuously expand and extend.

--Holmium (Ho)

In the 19th century, because of the discovery of spectrum analysis and published the periodic table, plus the progress of electrochemical separation process of rare earth elements, more promote the discovery of new rare earth elements. Found in 1879, the Swedish Cleveland holmium element and in the Swedish capital Stockholm places named holmium (holmium).

Holmium applications at present has yet to be further development, the dosage is not very big, recently, baotou rare earth research institute USES high temperature and high vacuum distillation purification technology, developed the high purity of rare earth impurity content is very low metal holmium Ho / ∑ RE > 99.9%. At present the main use of holmium: used as metal halogen lamp additives, metal halide lamp is a gas discharge lamp, it is developed on the basis of high pressure mercury lamp, its characteristic is in the light bulb filled with a variety of different rare earth halide. At present the main use is rare earths iodide in different spectral line during a gas discharge light color. The holmium lamps and work material is adopted in the iodide holmium, in arc zone can obtain higher concentrations of metal atoms, thus greatly improve the radiation efficiency. (2) can be used as yttrium holmium or yttrium aluminum garnet additive; (3) doped YAG yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho: YAG) can launch 2 microns laser, the body's tissues to 2 microns laser absorption rate is high, almost than Hd: YAG high 3 orders of magnitude. So with Ho: YAG laser medical surgery, can not only improve the operation efficiency and accuracy, and can make the thermal damage area to smaller. Holmium crystals produce free beam can eliminate fat, won't produce too much heat, thus reduce the thermal damage to healthy tissue, reported to the United States with holmium laser treatment of glaucoma, can reduce the pain of the patients. 2 microns in our country the level of the laser crystal has reached the international level, should vigorously develop and produce this kind of laser crystal. (4) in the magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol - D, can also add a small amount of holmium, thereby reducing alloy saturation magnetization field as needed. (5) with other doped yag optical fiber can be made of fiber laser, fiber amplifier, optical fiber sensor and so on optical components in optical fiber communication rapidly will play a more important role today.

--Erbium (Er)

In 1843, Sweden's Thornton found Erbium elements (Erbium). Erbium optical properties is very outstanding, has always been a matter of concern: (1) the Er3 + light emission at 1550 nm with special significance, because the wavelength is just the minimum loss in optical fiber communication optical fiber, erbium ions (Er3 +) by the wavelength of 980 nm, 1480 nm light excitation, 4 i15/2 from the ground state transition to upper state 4 i13/2, when in the upper state Er3 + to transition back to the ground state when emit 1550 nm wavelength of light, quartz optical fiber can transmit different wavelengths of light, but different light failure rate is different, in the light of 1550 nm band quartz optical fiber transmission attenuation time minimum (0.15 db/km), almost to the lower limit of attenuation rate. Therefore, optical fiber communication at 1550 nm as a signal light, the light loss is minimal. So, if the appropriate concentration of erbium doped suitable matrix, can according to the principle of laser effect, loss in the amplifier can compensate the communication system, so the need to enlarge the wavelength of 1550 nm light signals in the telecommunications network, erbium-doped fiber amplifier is indispensable optical device, the erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier has been commercialized. According to the report, to avoid useless absorption, optical fiber in the amount of erbium doped dozens to hundreds of PPM. The rapid development of optical fiber communication, will set up the application of erbium new areas. (2) the other erbium laser crystal and its output of 1730 nm and 1550 nm laser is safe for people eyes, atmospheric transmission performance is good, the smoke of the battlefield penetration ability is stronger, the secrecy good, not easy detection by enemy, illuminate large quantities of military targets, has made it safe for military use portable laser range finder. (3) the Er3 + join the glass can be made into rare earth glass laser materials, the output pulse energy is the largest, the highest output power solid state laser materials. (4) Er3 + can do active ion of rare earth conversion on laser materials. (5) other erbium can also be applied to the lens glass, crystal glass decolorizing and shading, etc.

--Thulium (Tm)

Thulium element is found in 1879 Sweden Cleveland, and with the same di Scandinavia (Scandinavia) the old name of both named Thulium (Thulium).

Thulium has the following several aspects: (1) the main purpose of thulium ray source used as medical portable X-ray machine, thulium can after irradiation in the nuclear reactor to produce a X-ray of isotope that can be used to manufacture portable blood irradiation on the instrument, the radiometer can make thulium - 169 is the role of high neutron beam into thulium - 170, emit X-ray irradiation blood and decreased white blood cells, and it is these white blood cells cause of organ transplant rejection, thereby reducing the early rejection of organ. (2) thulium element can also be applied to clinical diagnosis and treatment of tumor, because it to tumor tissues with high affinity, heavy rare earth greater than light rare earth affinity, especially with the affinity of the thulium element is the largest. (3) thulium in X-ray intensifying screen do activator in the fluorescent powder LaOBr: Br (blue), to enhance the optical sensitivity, and thus reduce the X-ray radiation and harm of people, compared with calcium tungstate intensifying screen before can reduce X ray dose by 50%, in the medical application has the important practical significance. (4) thulium can do additives in new lighting source metal halogen lamp. (5) Tm3 + join the glass can be made into rare earth glass laser material, the quantity of output pulse is the largest, the highest output power solid state laser materials. Tm3 + also can do active ion of rare earth conversion on laser materials.

--Ytterbium (Yb)

In 1878, Charles (Jean Charles) and Ma Lige (found in the \"erbium\" new rare earth element, the element by kuyt will (Ytterby) named Ytterbium (Ytterbium).

There are (1) as the main purpose of ytterbium heat shielding coating material. Ytterbium can significantly improve the corrosion resistance of zinc electroplating layer, and contain the ytterbium coating than excluding ytterbium coating grain fine, homogeneous density. (2) as a magnetostrictive material. This kind of material has super magnetic scale expansion in the magnetic field characteristics. This alloy is mainly composed of yb/ferrite alloy and dysprosium ferrite alloy composition, and add a certain proportion of manganese, in order to produce super magnetic scalability. Ytterbium element (3) is used to measure pressure, the experiment proved that ytterbium components within the scope of the calibration of pressure sensitivity is high, at the same time as the ytterbium in pressure measurement applications has opened up a new way. (4) molar empty resin base filler, to replace the commonly used silver amalgam. (5) the Japanese scholars have successfully completed the ytterbium doped gadolinium gallium garnet embedment line waveguide laser preparation work, the completion of the work is very meaningful for the further development of laser technology. In addition, ytterbium activator phosphor, radio ceramics, electronic computer memory element (bubble) additive, fluxing agent and additive in optical glass and glass fiber, etc.

--Lutetium (Lu)

In 1907 Wells Bach and especially bain (G.U rbain) respectively, with different separation methods from the ytterbium, and discovered a new element in the Wells Bach named the elements of the Cp (Cassiopeium), especially according to the old name of Paris bain lutece named Lu (Lutetium). Cp and Lu later found to be the same element, called lutetium unity.

There are (1) the main purpose of lutetium make some special alloys. For example, lutetium aluminum alloy can be used for neutron activation analysis. (2) the stability of lutetium nuclide in petroleum cracking, alkylation, hydrogenation and polymerization plays a catalytic role. (3) the yttrium iron or add elements yttrium aluminum garnet, improve some properties. (4) the bubble reservoir of raw material. (5) a compound function four aluminium borate crystals lutetium doped yttrium neodymium, belongs to the salt solution cooling technology of crystal growth, the experiment proved that the mixed lutetium NYAB crystals in the optical homogeneity and laser performance is better than that of NYAB crystal. (6) the study found that by the relevant departments of the foreign lutetium in electrochromics and low molecule have potential application in the semiconductor. In addition, lutetium phosphors are also used in energy battery technology and activator, etc.

--Yttrium (Y)

In 1788, a to study chemistry, and mineralogy, collect ore amateur Sweden officer Carl areni uz (Karl Arrhenius) in Stockholm kuyt will village outside the bay (Ytterby), found the appearance as black as coal tar and minerals, according to the local place name named kuyt will mine (Ytterbite). 1794 Finnish chemist John Lin analyzed that kuyt will ore samples. Found in addition to the beryllium, silicon, iron oxide, contains about 38% of the unknown elements of oxide jujube \"new earth\". In 1797, the Swedish chemist ek berg (Anders Gustaf Ekeberg) confirmed that this kind of \"new earth\", named yttrium soil (Yttria, yttrium oxide).

Yttrium metal, is a kind of widely used main purposes are: (1) the steel and non-ferrous alloy additives. FeCr alloy usually contains 0.5 4% yttrium, yttrium could enhance the oxidation resistance and ductility of the stainless steel; MB26 alloy after adding the right amount of yttrium mixed rare earth rich, to improve the comprehensive performance of alloy obviously, can replace part of the stress of the strong aluminum alloy for aircraft component; Add a small amount of yttrium rich in Al - Zr alloy rare earths, alloy can be improved conductivity; The alloy have been used for most domestic wire factory. Add yttrium in copper alloy and improve the conductivity and mechanical strength. (2) the yttrium contained 6% and aluminium 2% of silicon nitride ceramic materials, can be used to develop engine parts. (3) with 400 watts of neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet laser beam to drilling, cutting and welding of large components and other mechanical processing. (4) composed of Y - Al garnet single chip screen electronic microscope, fluorescence intensity is high, low absorption of scattered light, high temperature resistance and abrasion resistance is good. (5) high yttrium contained 90% of yttrium alloy structure, can be applied to aviation and other requiring low density and high melting point. (6) the current concern of yttrium doped SrZrO3 high-temperature proton conducting materials, requirements for fuel cell and electrolytic cell and high hydrogen solubility of gas sensor production has the vital significance. In addition, yttrium used for high temperature resistant coating materials, nuclear reactor fuel diluent, permanent magnetic material additives and getter in the electronic industry.

--Scandium (Sc)

In 1879, Sweden's chemistry professor nelson (L.F.N ilson, 1840 ~ 1899) and Clive (P.T.C leve, 1840 ~ 1905) is almost at the same time in the rare mineral silicon beryllium ore yttrium and black dilute found a new element in the gold mine. They give the element named \"Scandium\" (Scandium), Scandium is mendeleev had foretold \"class b\" elements. Their findings again proved the correctness of the periodic trends and mendeleev's vision.

Scandium compared with yttrium and lanthanide, due to the ionic radius small, hydroxide alkaline is particularly weak, therefore, scandium and rare earth elements together, with ammonia (or extremely dilute alkali treatment, scandium will be the first to precipitate, so the application of the fractional precipitation technique can be more easily to separate it from the rare earth elements. Another way is to use nitrate points to separate polar decomposition, due to nitric acid scandium is the most easy to decompose, thus achieve the purpose of separation.

Can be obtained using the method of electrolytic metal scandium, while refined scandium ScCl3, KCl and LiCl eutectic, molten zinc as the cathode electrolytic, scandium in zinc precipitation on pole, and then will go to the available scandium metal zinc steam. In addition, in mineral processing production of uranium, thorium and easy recovery scandium lanthanides. Tungsten, tin, is part of the comprehensive recovery of scandium is also one of the important sources of scandium.

Scandium in compounds mainly shows three valence, easily oxidized in the air into Sc2O3 lost into dark grey metallic luster.

Scandium can release hydrogen to the hot water, soluble in acid, also is a kind of strong reducing agent.

Scandium oxide and hydroxide alkaline, only the salt hydrolysis ash can hardly. Scandium chloride is white crystal, soluble in water and can deliquesce in the air.

In the metallurgical industry, scandium is often used in the manufacture of alloy additive (alloy), to improve the strength of the alloy, hardness and heat resistance, and performance. Such as, add a small amount of scandium in molten iron, can significantly improve the performance of the cast iron, a small amount of scandium in aluminium, can improve its strength and heat resistance.

In the electronic industry, scandium can be used for a variety of semiconductor devices, such as scandium sulfite in the semiconductor has attracted the attention of both at home and abroad, the application of scandium ferrite in computer magnetic core is promising.

In the chemical industry, using scandium compounds as alcohol dehydrogenation and dehydrating agent, production of ethylene and chlorine produced by waste hydrochloric acid and efficient catalyst.

In the glass industry, can make special glass containing scandium.

In the lighting industry, including scandium sodium lamp made of scandium and sodium, possesses the advantages of high efficiency and light color is.

Scandium in nature are exist in the form of 45 sc, in addition, scandium and 9 kinds of radioactive isotopes, namely 40 ~ 44 sc and 46 ~ 49 sc. Among them, 46 sc as a tracer, has been used in chemical, metallurgical and oceanography, etc. In medicine, and study abroad with 46 sc to treat cancer. The properties and usage of scandium.

Rare earth resources are scarce, America and Japan have not their own domestic rare earth resources, only from import in our country, the rare earth export in our country can be said to sell the gold into the cabbage price, countries will grow much in recent years, control of the exports of rare earths.

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